BIM in America
The United States has long been acknowledged as the global leader in the development and application of BIM within the construction sector. In the United States, the rate of acceptance of BIM applications by engineers, architects, and contractors is growing daily. With a 35% share of the global BIM market in 2014, the United States held the greatest market share.
The GSA agency is responsible for the operation and construction of public facilities in the United States. GSA and PBS (Public Building Services) established a national BIM program in 2003. The use of BIM has been required since 2007 for spatial program verification of all projects. In addition, several internationally approved standards including a national BIM standard have been developed.
The GSA is recognized as a pioneer in the United States in promoting the use of BIM. As a major public sector client with approximately 8,700 buildings and more than 300 million feet across the United States, this program has had a huge impact on BIM adoption. This has highlighted the importance of large customer demands and government leadership for the construction industry.
In 2007, the GSA in the USA published a handbook on BIM. After 2007, the use of the BIM system has been made mandatory if the constructions are done above the determined costs. With the digitization and development of the construction industry, the information desired to be displayed through CAD-based drawings has been insufficient. GSA, which publishes guides in many different sectors, supports the adoption and use of the BIM system throughout the entire life cycle of projects, from the very beginning to the end.
There are also some steps taken locally to support the use of the BIM system. The state of Wisconsin was the first state to mandate the use of a BIM system for publicly funded projects exceeding $5 million. LACCD (Los Angeles Community College District) mandated BIM to be used in a sustainable building project funded by a taxpayer-approved bond. Thanks to the use of BIM, they saved $12 million on the project, which included $6 billion in construction.
BIM in United Kingdom
One of the leading countries in the world in terms of using BIM is the United Kingdom. From its publication in 2011, the Government Construction Strategy has mandated Level 2 BIM for public sector projects in the UK until 2016.
The UK Government BIM Task Group has developed BIM standards to encourage the use of BIM in the construction industry in their country, thereby leading the national change process. At the same time, some organizations such as the non-profit AEC-UK Committee and the British Standards Institution (BSI) have published BIM standards.
Uniclass2015, which has a classification system for every sector in the construction industry in the UK, has been redeveloped by the National Building Specification in accordance with ISO 12006-2 to provide a comprehensive system and make it suitable for use. For the adoption of Level 2 BIM, Uniclass 2015 provides the necessary project information with a configuration tool.
The UK Government has mandated the use of Level 2 BIM in all public sector projects since 2016. The system, which he calls Integrated BIM, has been defined as Level 2 BIM by the United Kingdom. Levels indicate the digital maturity of the market. The use of Level 2 BIM is supported by programs developed by non-governmental organizations such as the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the Construction Industry Council (CIC).
To implement the requirement of Level 2 BIM in construction projects financed by central resources, the UK has prepared some tests within the BIM system transition program. As a result of one of these tests, it was determined that the applications made with the BIM system should work within the construction contract and that the changes or additions should be minimal.
The UK Government, which has prepared a gradual action plan over five years, has focused on strategic working areas; the development of tools and standards, communication with academia and industry, increasing the introduction of the BIM system to public projects and increasing the capacity of the public employer.
The Construction Industry Council was awarded £5 million to set up the UK BIM task force. This group works with construction industry stakeholders to support the public in defining new working methods and standards, and in adopting new working methods and disseminating knowledge to the industry.
BIM in Australia
The BIM system in public and private sector projects has been used by the Australian construction industry for years. Despite the recognized benefits of the BIM system in terms of construction and operation, it is considered that the BIM system has not yet reached its full potential in both phases of the asset lifecycle. The lack of leadership in the public sense for the implementation of the BIM system is one of the main reasons for this situation.
Although strong government authority on BIM shows its importance in the UK, this is not the case in Australia. While this situation caused the BIM system to not have nationally consistent processes, it also caused reluctance among industry stakeholders who wanted to invest in the BIM initiative.
Australia outlined several national BIM adoption goals in the 2012 National BIM Initiative report (buildingSMART Australia, 2012) prepared by buildingSMART Australia and commissioned by the Built Environment Industry Innovation Council (BEIIC), an Australian advisory body. The main recommendations are;
- Creation of a National BIM Initiative Plan.
- Fully integrated operating system-based BIM requirement for all Australian Government purchases by 1 July 2016.
- Encourage Australian states and territories to require full 3D open BIM.
Construction Information Systems Limited (NATSPEC), a non-profit government-sponsored organization, published the BIM guide, NATSPEC National BIM Guide, in 2011. In 2012, the Project BIM Management Plan Template was published as an additional document to the National BIM Guide.
BEIICC has contributed significantly to the adoption of the BIM system in Australia. The Air Conditioning and Mechanical Contractors’ Association (AMCA) launched the BIM-MEPAUS initiative to facilitate the implementation of BIM and IPD within Australian construction services. The BIM-MEPAUS Forum has been organized by AMCA once a year since 2010. This annual forum aims to raise awareness of the BIM system and to raise awareness of the BIM system in Australia.
Infrastructure Australia, one of the steps taken to increase the adaptation of the BIM system, aims to bring solutions by revealing the infrastructure problems and opportunities encountered. In this context, the government thought that it would increase BIM adoption by making the BIM system mandatory in large infrastructure projects.
BIM in Singapore
Until 2015, the Building and Construction Authority of Singapore (BCA) developed strategies to increase the use of the BIM system in public projects. The government has set up the Construction Efficiency and Talent Fund, with a $250 million main goal being the BIM system.
The Construction and Real Estate Network (CORENET) program was established in 2000 as a strategic initiative to drive transformation in the industry through the use of information technology. CORENET provides the infrastructure for information sharing among all stakeholders within the project. Another initiative that encourages the sector to use BIM is the CORENET e-tender control system. The CORENET e-procurement control system allows engineers and architects to check their BIM-designed buildings for regulatory compliance via an online network. One of the countries that haveadopted IFC as the standard for BIM implementation is Singapore.
In Singapore, the use of BIM in the construction industry is promoted by buildingSMART Singapore and BCA. As it has been identified as a key technology, the BIM system is thought to increase productivity and integration between various disciplines in the construction value chain.
In 2010, BCA started to implement the BIM roadmap. In the construction sector, the target is to have at least 80% of the use of the BIM system by 2015. In 2011, a National BIM Steering Committee composed of representatives of professional bodies, government procurement agencies, chambers of commerce and regulatory agencies was established to provide a management framework for guiding the implementation of the BIM Roadmap.
Having played a key role in formulating the Singapore BIM Guidelines and BIM Special Conditions, the committee has created platforms such as the BIM Admin Forum to shine a light on the technical issues facing the industry.
A BIM Fund, which aims to help companies adapt to the integrated working system of the BIM system by meeting the costs of purchasing BIM software and hardware along with consultancy services and training services, was established by BCA.
Especially in the electronic tender system, the use of BIM with e-documents has been gradually transferred to the construction sector since 2013. For this reason, it is obligatory to submit engineering or architectural drawings to authorized institutions in BIM format for those who do application work in the sector. In this context, it is seen that the public also encourages the use of the BIM system.
BIM in Finland
According to a survey conducted in Finland in 2007, it was determined that 33% of construction companies use IFC and BIM compliant BIM applications. At the same time, in this survey, it was determined that the use of BIM at some stages of the projects was 60% for engineers and 93% for architects.
In Finland, the senate estates and state property services agency have mandated design software to include IFC certification since 2007. At the same time, Senate properties for modelling requirements have published a project requirement detailing guidelines. These published requirements are referred to as the Common BIM Requirements.
13 publications to date cover new construction and renovation targets as well as facility management and building use. In May 2015, InfraBIM requirements aimed at accelerating the digitalization of the infrastructure sector were published by buildingSMART Finland.
BIM awareness is increasing day by day in Finland. Local governments, industry stakeholders and government institutions are especially based on the delivery of BIM system-based projects. BIM maturity levels may vary for projects and awareness levels may differ among stakeholders. If we explain this; While the information in infrastructure projects is not mature enough to meet the full potential and efficiency of the BIM system, building projects lead the whole process. However, due to the early start of BIM system adaptation, it is thought that Finland will solve its infrastructure integration in a short time.
BIM in Norway
Norway is one of the first countries in the world to set BIM standards and adopt the BIM system. Norway played a very active role in the development of OpenBIM standards.
Norway has been working on 3D BIM since 2010 in public related projects. Government officials, on the other hand, published a roadmap for the adoption of the BIM system in 2020. Norwegian Real Estate and Public Construction Authority Statsbygg mandates the use of the BIM system in all projects using IFC-based BIM models.
Statsbygg and the Norwegian Builders Association publish BIM guidelines. These published guidelines aim to provide practical support for the use of the BIM system in planning projects for residential buildings. It provides an overview of 39 common modelling techniques for software tools.
In Norway, many public institutions have started BIM programs with the decision of the government. Statsbygg, Norway’s most important consultant on BIM, announced that IFC-compliant BIM is required for all new building projects. For the adoption of the BIM system, Statsbygg conducted some R&D projects focusing on the BIM system for location-based simulation, efficient construction and energy calculations.
According to a study conducted in Norway, between 25% and 30% of construction costs are due to poor communication and the fragmented nature of the information exchange process. Information about the building is entered into different systems at least 7 times until it is delivered to its owner. Nearly 40% of building damage in Norway is thought to be caused by negligence and planning errors. The government, on the other hand, concluded that the BIM system was necessary to minimize damage to buildings.
BIM in Turkey
The construction industry has an important place in Turkey’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Although it makes a significant contribution to the Turkish economy, the Turkish construction industry needs to be integrated into the digital construction concept.
Being a producer in terms of building materials, Turkey is a competitive country in the production of products such as structural steel, glass products, cement, chemical additives and ceramics. It is thought that it will make an extra contribution to the Turkish economy thanks to the digitalization and BIM integration of the construction sector in Turkey.
The construction industry continues with the traditional method for private and public projects in Turkey. In the interviews with the experts working in the public sector, it was stated that the Turkish construction industry needed a guide to implement the BIM system.
For developing countries like Turkey, increasing BIM awareness and encouraging them to use the BIM system is a very challenging task. It is thought that it will not be easy to implement the strategies adopted by technologically and industrially mature developed countries in Turkey. The reason for this is that it is a known fact that serious investment is needed for the practical implementation of the BIM system. For this reason, it is thought that the models applied in the countries should be taken one-to-one and accepted as a guide to a certain extent beyond their adaptation to the Turkish construction industry.
The lack of a publicly shared contract type in Turkey has revealed the necessity of publishing the implementation principles of the BIM system in the widely used General Specifications for Construction Works. “BIM Technical Specification and Tender Documents” was only published by the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure in February 2021. The document, on the other hand, is generally based on experience gained from past projects. The specific standards and needs of the Turkish construction sector for the public procurement system and standards have been taken into account during the preparation of this document.
In the introduction part of the document, the necessary additions to the management and the draft specification are included. In the second part of the document, there is the standard form of the BIM Technical Specification, which should be included in the offer. Railways, highways, airports, etc. BIM Specifications is a standard and flexible module that helps explain the right BIM objectives. The specification covers all the content necessary to manage information from the initial stage to the final stage of a construction project. It is considered that the BIM Implementation Plan and other annexes created by the contractor should support the implementation of this content.
The “2019 – 2022 National Smart Cities Strategy and Action Plan” report was published by the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Urbanization in 2019. In this report;
- Establishment of the National Smart Cities Maturity Assessment Model
- Establishment of National Smart Cities Monitoring and Evaluation Model and System
- Current Situation Analysis and Identification of Needs
- Smart Cities Ecosystem Capacity Building
- There are stages such as the preparation of the 2019 – 2022 National Smart Cities Strategy and Action Plan.
In the context of this report published by the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, it should be said that the BIM system plays a key role in Turkey’s smart cities target.
The BIM system was also used in some public projects in Turkey.
- Ataköy-İkitelli Metro Line
- Istanbul Airport
- Ankara Trendyol Transfer Center
- Istanbul İkitelli City Hospital
- Elazig Fethi Sekin City Hospital
- Bursa City Hospital
an example can be given.